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国际风格景观——因地制宜 以古通今/
  • 出版单位:湖南美术出版社
  • 出版日期:2011-10
  • 书刊编号:ISBN 978-7-5356-4724-5
  • 语言种类:中英文
  • 商品规格:8开 (310 mm×450 mm)8-mo (310mm×450mm)
  • 原 定 价:定价:998元
  • 订阅价:998.00
特 色 推 荐
Features
***主要卖点: “国际风格”系列作为唐艺的主要系列丛书,《楼盘》、《样板房》都取得了巨大的成功,《国际风格景观》吸取经验,倾力打造,14种风格、28个国家、106个项目,缔造出景观类图书的超级航母!
《国际风格景观》归纳以下三大优势卖点,以供各位销售人员参考借鉴: 卖点一:分类全面: 目前唯一的真正以风格为分类的综合性景观图书。包括:中式、日式、东南亚、英式、法式、地中海等14大类。 卖点二:代表性强: 精选代表各种风格最高水平的最新作品,组稿来源于28个国家,海外作品占到80%。 卖点三:编辑创新: 不是简单的风格或项目的罗列,本书编辑重点阐述各种景观风格的地域性特色,力求展现、比较某种风格在本土及其他地区的变化融合发展情况。 ***
《国际风格景观》在全球范围内精选了最新的106个景观项目。在分类上,以世界主流景观风格为划分依据,包括现代风格、中式风格、日式风格、美式风格、东南亚风格、英式风格、法式风格、地中海风格等14种类别,通过集成众多的风格类别,系统而全面地介绍了欧亚非大陆上的各个国家和地区的园林景观的发展情况,以及对于同一种风格在不同国家之间的运用进行了对比和简略综述,以便于读者认识和了解。

Landscape of International Style includes the 106 latest landscape projects around the world. These projects are divided into 14 styles, such as modern style, Chinese style, Japanese style, American style, Southeast Asian style, English style, French style and Mediterranean style. The widely-covering style projects systematically and thoroughly show the development of landscape architecture around the world. Additionally, they give brief introduction and examples for comparison of the same style landscapes in different counties so that you can easily learn more about it.

本书以实践为基础编写,以实景彩图与设计图配合精辟的文字论述,重点阐述各国景观的地域性设计特色,同时与市场需求紧密结合,创新融入“人性化、生态化、科技化、艺术化”等当前最为热门的4大景观设计趋势,展示世界各地风景园林方面最新的优秀规划和设计趋向。

Edited on the basis of practice, this book uses color real scene photos, 乐投Letou网址 drawings and incisive texts to discuss localized 乐投Letou网址 features of landscape architecture around the world. Additionally, it is closely connected with the market demand by integrating with the four hottest trends of landscape 乐投Letou网址, which are human-oriented, ecological, high-technological and artistic, to present excellent plans and trends of landscape 乐投Letou网址 around the world.

项 目 介 绍
Project Introduction

01中式园林风格
杭州西湖四季酒店 010
西安大唐芙蓉园 024
西安曲江池遗址公园 036
西安曲江新区景观 044
西安天朗蔚蓝观园 050
上海世博会亩中山水园 056
天津格调竹境 068
南京颐和公馆 082
武汉融科•天城 086

01 Chinese Style
Four Seasons Hotel Hangzhou at West Lake 010
Tang Paradise, Xi’an 024
Qujiang Pool Park, Xi’an 036
Qujiang New District Landscape, Xi’an 044
Titan • The First Park Landscape, Xi’an 050
Chinese Garden, Shanghai Expo 056
Gediao Zujing Landscape, Tianjin 068
Yihe Mansion Landscape, Nanjing 082
Raycom • Skyline, Wuhan 086

02日式园林风格
日本寒川神社花园 094
日本京园禅意庭院 102
日本福冈银行新本部大楼 108
日本饭田桥景观 114
日本S宅邸庭院 120
无锡灵山禅修中心(竹林精舍)126
德国H宅邸庭院 132

02 Japanese Style
Garden of Samukawa Shrine, Japan 094
Zen Garden Kyouen, Japan 102
Fukuoka Bank Headquarters, Japan 108
Iidabashi Plano, Japan 114
Residential Garden for Mr. S’s 120
Zen Meditation Center in Lingshan Mountain, Wuxi 126
Residential Garden for Mr. H’s 132

03东南亚园林风格
泰国普吉撒拉餐厅 140
泰国Zense美食露台 148
泰国希尔顿芭提雅中央酒店 154
泰国Baan Sansuk庭院 164
泰国清迈The Chedi酒店 172
泰国Baan Yamu公寓二期 174
泰国Privé公寓 178
沈阳万科•金域蓝湾 184
杭州东海•柠檬郡 190
广州居礼• 润园 196
印尼Alila Villas Uluwatu度假别墅 210
印尼巴厘岛Semara水疗度假村 216

03 Southeast Asian Style
SALA Phuket, Thailand 140
Zense Gourmet Deck and Lounge Panorama, Thailand 148
Hilton Central Pattaya Hotel, Thailand 154
Garden of Baan Sansuk, Thailand 164
The Chedi Chiang Mai, Thailand 172
Baan Yamu Phase II, Thailand 174
Privé by Sansiri, Thailand 178
Vanke • The Paradiso, Shenyang 184
East Sea • Lemon Dream, Hangzhou 190
Ju Li • Run Garden, Guangzhou 196
Alila Villas Uluwatu, Indonesia 210
Semara Resort and Spa, Bali, Indonesia 216

04印度园林风格
印度展园 224
印度新德里五感花园 226
印度新德里综合购物广场 230
印度瓦拉纳西Nadesar皇宫酒店 234
印度新德里阿曼酒店 236

04 Indian Style
India Garden, Expo 2011 Xi'an 224
The Garden of Five Senses, India 226
Plaza at Emporium Complex, New Delhi 230
Taj Nadesar Palace, Varanasi, India 234
New Aman Hotel in New Delhi , India 236

05阿拉伯园林风格
西班牙伊斯兰园 240
阿布扎比Anantara度假酒店 242

05 Arabian Style
Spanish Islamic Garden, Expo 2011 Xi'an 240
Qasr Al Sarab Desert Resort, Abu Dhabi 242

06地中海园林风格
意大利IL Salviatino酒店 248
澳大利亚黄金海岸范思哲酒店 252
福州三盛托斯卡纳 258
意大利台地园林 264
西班牙万豪La Sella度假酒店 266
杭州良渚文化村阳光天际 270

06 Mediterranean Style
Hotel IL Salviatino, Italy 248
Palazzo Versace Gold Coast, Australia 252
San Sheng • Toscana, Fuzhou 258
Italian Terrace Garden, Expo 2011 Xi'an 264
Marriott Resort La Sella, Spain 266
Sunlight Vista, Hangzhou 270

07法式园林风格
法国古典主义园林 278
上海风景水岸(一期)280
加州Cantor别墅花园 284
美国加州Robson别墅 288

07 French Style
French Classical Garden, Expo 2011 Xi'an 278
Boee Scenery Coast I, Shanghai 280
Garden of Cantor Residence, California 284
Robson Residence, California 288

08德式园林风格
德国柏林博物馆岛柱廊庭院 296
德国奥伯豪森CentrO购物休闲中心 300
德国埃森大学园区 304

08 German Style
Colonnade Courtyard - Museum Island Berlin, Germany 296
CentrO Shopping and Leisure Center, Germany 300
University Park Essen, Germany 304

09英式园林风格
英国棕榈度假酒店 310
杭州万科白鹭郡南一期 314
美国雨园住宅景观 320

09 English Style
The Palms Grand Resort & Spa, UK 310
Vanke • Heron Hill South Phase I, Hangzhou 314
Rain Garden Residence Landscape, USA 320

10美式园林风格
美国圣地亚哥Santaluz度假村别墅 326
美国加利福尼亚州木蕊村公园 330
美国德克萨斯州松湖牧场别墅 334
美国加州玛吉牧场住宅区 338
美国加州山地别墅 342
墨西哥Encanto酒店 350

10 American Style
Santaluz, San Diego, USA 326
Woodbury, California, USA 330
Pine Lake Ranch Residence, Texas, USA 334
Magee Ranch Residential Quarter, California, USA 338
Mountain House, California 342
Hotel Encanto, Mexico 350

11热带沙漠园林风格
墨西哥拉斯本塔纳斯阿利帕拉伊索酒店 356
美国亚利桑那州凤凰城万豪沙漠岭度假村 362
美国拉斯维加斯时尚秀购物中心 368
阿联酋迪拜塔公园 374

11 Tropical Desert Style
Las Ventanas Al Paraíso, Mexico 356
Desert Ridge Marriott, Phoenix, Arizona, USA 362
Fashion Show Mall, Las Vegas, USA 368
Burj Khalifa Tower Park, UAE 374

12现代自然园林风格
以色列海法大学学生中心 388
以色列本•古里安大学入口广场 & 美术馆 392
日本宝冢太阳城 396
秦皇岛滨海景观带 402
遂宁河东新区五彩滨江景观带规划 410
南京紫峰大厦 414
上海古北国际财富中心一期 420
上海古北黄金城道步行街 424
上海金地格林世界“白金院邸” 432
西安阳光金城 436
迪拜矽地绿洲别墅群 442
荷兰新水防线 444
美国布法罗河口散步道 448
美国休斯顿四季酒店 452
美国康奈提格州圣心大学小教堂景观 458
纽约长岛海滨别墅 460
加州纳帕谷Zakin别墅 464
纽约格林威治顶层公寓 470
美国住宅景观 Red Walls 476
美国住宅景观modern transformation 480
巴西圣保罗烟囱房子 486
巴西圣保罗6号公馆 492

12 Natural Modern Style
Haifa University Student Center, Israel 388
BGU University Entrance Square & Art Gallery, Israel 392
Sun City Takarazuka, Japan 396
Seashore Landscape Belt, Qinhuangdao 402
Colorful Riverside Landscape Belt, Suining 410
Greenland International Commercial Center, Nanjing 414
Gubei International Fortune Centre (Phase I), Shanghai 420
Gubei Gold Street, Shanghai 424
Gemdale • Green World (Phase IV), Shanghai 432
Sunshine Golden City, Xi’an 436
Dubai Silicon Oasis Villa Complex 442
New Dutch Waterline 444
Buffalo Bayou Promenade, USA 448
Four Seasons Hotel, Houston, USA 452
Sacred Heart University Chapel, Connecticut, USA 458
Beach House, Long Island, New York 460
Zakin Residence, California 464
Greenwich Penthouse, New York 470
Residential Landscape of Red Walls, USA 476
Modern Transformation to a Residence, USA 480
Chimney House, Sao Paulo, Brazil 486
House 6, Sao Paulo, Brazil 492

13现代节能园林风格
深圳万科中心 500
台湾光宝电子公司总部 508
英国伦敦希思罗机场5号航站楼 512
悉尼皮拉玛公园 516
澳大利亚岬角公园 524
墨尔本国际会议会展中心 530
堪培拉澳大利亚公园 538
美国拉斯维加斯红岩峡谷游客中心 544
加拿大港滨绿色社区 550

13 Eco-friendly Modern Style
Vanke Center, Shenzhen 500
Lite-On Electronic Headquarters, Taiwan 508
Heathrow T5, London 512
Sydney Pirrama Park 516
Ballast Point Park, Australia 524
Melbourne Convention Exhibition Center 530
The New Australian Gardens at the NGA Canberra 538
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center, Las Vegas, USA 544
Dockside Green, Canada 550

14现代创意园林风格
上海中邦城市雕塑花园 556
上海800秀创意园 560
日本难波园 566
泰国春武里府尚泰广场 570
西班牙马德里里奥景观 574
西班牙科尔多瓦露天市民活动中心 586
爱沙尼亚公路博物馆露天展区 592
荷兰卢森堡基希贝格星点果园 598
墨尔本717 Bourke 商业街 604
加拿大多伦多中央滨水区 608
美国德克萨斯州运河广场 612
美国迈阿密林肯公园 616

14 Creative Modern Style
Zobon City Sculpture Garden, Shanghai 556
800 SHOW Creative Park, Shanghai 560
Namba Parks, Japan 566
Central Plaza Chonburi, Thailand 570
Madrid RIO, Madrid, Spain 574
Open Center of Civic Activities, Córdoba, Spain 586
Open-air Exhibition Grounds of the Estonian Road Museum 592
A Fragmented Orchard, Kirchberg 598
717 Bourke Street, Melbourne 604
Toronto Central Waterfront, Canada 608
Waterway Square, Texas, USA 612
Miami Beach SoundScape / Lincoln Park,USA 616

15其他园林风格
日本那须Fantasy Pointe主题公园 624
尼加拉瓜Mukul度假酒店 628

15 Others
Nasu Highland Fantasy Pointe, Japan 624
Mukul, Nicaragua 628






精 彩 文 摘
Abstract

中式园林风格
——虽由人作,浑然天成
中式园林以再现自然山水为设计的基本准则,追求景观和自然环境的融洽,达到“虽由人作,宛自天开”的审美旨趣。在构图上以曲线为主,讲究曲径通幽的布局形式。庭院多由假山、花木、流水等共同组成,小品以木质的亭台、廊柱和水榭为主。通常采用框景、障景、抑景、借景、对景、漏景、夹景、添景等中国古典园林的造园手法,来营造丰富多变的空间形象。

现代的中式园林,无论是南方园林,还是北方园林,都已不拘泥于传统的园林形式。设计手法上融入了更多的现代理念,既继承了中国古典园林的基本元素及造园手法,又融合了现代简约的几何图案及线条的设计风格,通过对中式园林思想的理解并提炼,用现代的符号将中式园林的神韵体现出来。

Chinese Style Landscape
- Natural Work by Human Hands

Traditional Chinese landscape honors appearance recapturing natural ones as its guideline in 乐投Letou网址 and goes after integration of 乐投Letou网址ed landscape into natural ones as if a natural work is created by human hands. In terms of composition, curved lines are the main elements and the focus lies in a layout with winding paths leading to secluded places. Basic components of Chinese courtyards are rockwork, flowers, trees and flowing water with decorative pieces, which mainly are wooden bowers, colonnades and waterside pavilions. Traditional Chinese gardens usually employ techniques of classical garden construction, such as view-framing, view-blocking, view-shading, view-borrowing, view-responding, view-leaking, view-lining and view-adding, to create multitude and changeable spaces.

Now no matter in the south or in the north, gardens no long get struck in the frame of traditional ones. More modern ideas are added into the 乐投Letou网址 techniques, which bear basic elements and construction approaches of classical Chinese gardens, meanwhile, combine with minimalist geometrical patterns and lines of modern times. After digested and refined, beauty of philosophy in Chinese garden construction is presented by modern symbols.

日式园林风格
——简练而精于细节
日本传统的园林景观深受中国文化的影响,至今中国古典园林的痕迹仍相当明显,从模仿自然山水的过程,日本园林逐渐摆脱了诗情画意和浪漫情趣,走向了枯寂的境界。也可以说它是中式庭院的一个精巧的微缩版本,细节上的处理是日式庭院最精彩的地方。景石的摆放、植物的定位、构景的布局都蕴涵着深刻的哲学思想和东方文化。

随着城市建设的发展,现代日式园林无论是在本国或是在他国的发展中都呈现出了新的趋势,即都强调与本土文化、环境相结合,反映出不同民族的自然观。如德国的H宅邸庭院,利用流淌的池水以及自然石块营造至美的境界,形成静谧而和谐的日式庭园氛围。这些石头景观不仅是日式庭园的特色元素,对于有着石头文化的德国来说,更是一种历史的传承。

Japanese Style Landscape
- Succinct in General while Meticulous in Details

Traditional Japanese style landscape features deep marks of Chinese culture on it. So far, it still has obvious traces of classical Chinese gardens left. Starting from imitating natural landscape, Japanese style landscape gradually breaks away from poetic atmosphere and romance and goes towards peaceful and lonesome state. It can be regarded as a meticulous micro version of Chinese courtyard. Detail handling is the most wonderful part of Japanese landscape. The arrangement of feature stones, position of plants and layout of scenery bear profound meaning of philosophy and the Oriental culture.

As the development of cities, no matter in Japan or other nations, modern Japanese style landscape presents a new trend, which emphasizes combination of landscape with local culture and environment to reflect various views about nature in different nations. For instance, Residential Garden for Mr. Herre in Germany uses flowing water and natural stones to create the ultimate beauty so that a secluded and harmonious Japanese style atmosphere can be achieved. Stone is not only a feature element in Japanese style garden, for Germany, a country with a tradition of using stone, but also a symbol of carrying on this tradition.

东南亚园林风格
——取材当地,强调度假风情
东南亚是由中南半岛和马来群岛所组成的一个新形成的地区,共包括了泰国、印度尼西亚、马来西亚等十一个国家,因地理环境的不同造就了各具特色的东南亚园林风格。其传统的造园手法继承了自然、健康和休闲的特质,大到空间打造,小到细节装饰,都体现了对自然的尊重和对手工艺制作的崇尚。

从景观的发展态势来看,现代的东南亚园林,更具有开放性与吸纳性,它能够在不同地域不同定位的情况下,从各国的实际需求出发,更灵活地演绎或华丽尊贵,或简捷洗练,或清新自然的多种设计方向。现代东南亚园林带来了异国风情,却呼唤着本土情怀,用现代的手法满足着轻松闲适的生活需求。

Southeast Asian Style Landscape
- Locally Sourced Materials, Emphasis on Holiday Mood

Southeast Asia is a region consisted of Indo-China peninsula and Malay Archipelago, including 11 countries such as Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, where different geographical conditions form different styles of landscape. The traditional garden construction bears characters that are natural, healthy and relaxing. From spatial creation to local decorations, they all show respect for nature and worship of craftsmanship.

From the point of view in developing trend, modern Southeast Asian style goes more open and flexible. It can fit in different regions and different goals. Starting from actual needs of different nations, modern Southeast Asian style is able to interpret grandeur or simple purification or refreshing style in a more flexible way. Modern Southeast Asian style landscape brings in exotic flavor but calls on local feelings. It uses contemporary approaches to satisfy needs for relaxing and cozy life.

印度园林风格
——艺术构图,沉静而内敛
印度传统园林沿袭了波斯伊斯兰园林的造园法则,平面布局为几何图案式,可以分割或进一步分成许多小的几何图形,其园林的典型代表是莫卧儿园林。它的一个特点是景观平面一般是正方形或长方形,分成四块,四周围以高墙,入口宏伟壮丽,大门由珍贵木材制成,布满装饰。另一个特点是把地形改造成几层台地,上层台地和下层台地之间用美丽的水坡作过渡,水坡由大理石或玉石制成,上面雕有精美的图案,水流经过时,在白色石材的映衬下尽显尊贵。

现代的印度园林风格通常利用水景使整个园林中各种造园要素连接成为一个有机整体,通过利用现代的蓝色瓷砖装饰水池,使传统的元素在现代的造景氛围中更显清新活泼。同时在水中设置凉亭,四周环绕着细细的喷泉,园中还种植一些印度当地的植物,如白花洋蹄甲、桔树、柠檬树配以现代的地被植物,体现不一样的造园格调。

Indian Style Landscape
- Artistic Composition with Serenity and Inwardness

Traditional Indian style landscape follows the principles of Islamic garden construction that layout is in geometrical patterns which can be divided into smaller geometrical ones. Mughal Gardens is the representative. The plane is usually in square or rectangle divided into four parts enclosed by high walls. The grand entrance is made of rare wood covered with decorations. Another feature is the stepped landform. Between the steps, beautiful water slope made of marble or jade carved with fine patterns. With water flowing over, the white marble appears greatness of the garden.

Modern Indian landscape usually employs water feature to connect all the construction elements into one. With modern blue ceramic tiles decorating the pool, traditional elements become lovelier in the modern atmosphere. Bowers will be placed in the waters with fine fountains around. Indian local plants, such as white bauhinia, orange trees and lemon trees along with ground cover, are planted to present a new garden style.

阿拉伯园林风格
——方正规则,富有宗教色彩
传统的阿拉伯园林继承了巴比伦、埃及、古波斯的方直的规划、齐整的栽植和规则的水渠,呈现出较为严整的园林风貌。园林面积通常较小,十字形的林荫路构成中轴线,将全园分割成四个区。在园林中心的十字形道路交汇处布设水池,象征天堂。园中沟渠明暗交替,又分隔出多个几何形小庭园,每个庭园的树木相同,彩色陶瓷和马赛克图案在庭园装饰中广泛应用。

现代的阿拉伯园林,随着时间推移而演变成了新的形式,但其“天园”模式被严格传承了下来。现代的园林形式多为日常起居、乘凉之用,故布局较简洁,以绿化为主,花木繁茂多荫。伊斯兰教律严格,穆斯林妇女大都深居简出,不抛头露面,因此园林建设就以实用为本,崇尚天然、朴素。源于宗教,归于世俗,便成为阿拉伯园林的又一特征。

Arabian Style Landscape
- Regular Layout with Rich Religious Flavor

Traditional Arabian style landscape carries on regular layout, uniform planting and orderly arrangement of channels passed down from times of Babylon, ancient Egypt and Persia. It is a kind of rigorous 乐投Letou网址ed landscape. And Arabian style landscape is usually placed in a small garden with two crossing shaded roads as axes that divide the garden into four parts. At the crossing point in the center, there is a pool symbolizing the heaven. The channels sometimes present themselves but sometimes become concealed. Water that sometimes pours out of a bowl but sometimes in form of drops divides four major parts into more subparts; each features the same species of trees and wide use of colored ceramics and mosaic patterns as decorations.

As time rolls on, modern Arabian style landscape is developed into a new form with the centerpiece – “Garden of Heaven” is kept without any changes. Modern landscape is mainly for daily use or leisure under shade, so the layout is rather simple with flourishing flowers and trees that can provide large area of shade. Based on the strict Islamic disciplines, Arabian style landscape prefers practical 乐投Letou网址s in worship of nature. “Coming from religion and ending up in daily use” is another character of Arabian style landscape.

地中海园林风格
——取材自然,质朴浪漫
地中海园林风格是一个较为庞大的风格流派,因为环绕着地中海的欧洲国家如西班牙、希腊、意大利等无一不是历史传统悠久的文明古国。不同的民族文化背景和不同的民族风俗造就了不同的地中海园林风格。一般来说,地中海风格的形成与地中海沿岸独特的气候有关,它所呈现的基调是蔚蓝色的浪漫情怀,海天一色、艳阳高照的纯美自然。

随着时间的推移,现代的地中海园林风格在运用的过程中呈现出了不同的设计手法:室内和室外的分界线被有意地模糊了;大露天餐厅、花架、阳伞是园内最常见的内容。露天就餐的悠闲和纯朴的生活方式都反映在总体的庭园设计中。地中海风格的庭园很符合现代被称之为“户内—户外”的生活方式 ,并且保留了传统中最具地中海特征的水元素,一种被称之为“无界水池”的游泳池正是这类庭园特色的具体呈现。

Mediterranean Style Landscape
- Naturally Sourced, Plain and Romantic

Mediterranean style landscape features a broad coverage, because European countries around the Mediterranean Sea, such as Spain, Greek and Italy, have long history and ancient civilization. Different background of national culture and diverse kinds of custom shape various types of landscape in Mediterranean style. Generally speaking, Mediterranean style landscape is related to the unique climate along the Mediterranean coast. It features romantic feelings in aquamarine color and evokes beautiful coastal scene that the sea and the sky merge into one in bright sunshine.

As time rolls on, modern Mediterranean style landscape adopts new 乐投Letou网址 approaches: boundary between the indoor and the outdoor has been intensively blurred; large open dining area, flower racks, sunshades are commonly used. A cozy and simple lifestyle reflected by outdoor dining is presented in the courtyard 乐投Letou网址. Mediterranean style courtyard is in line with a modern “indoor-outdoor” lifestyle and keeps water element, which is the most typical Mediterranean element, whose very embodiment is an infinity edge pool.

法式园林风格
——主次分明,构图严谨
法国园林风格的起源主要是受意大利文艺复兴影响,在经历了一段较长时间的模仿后,才开始形成自己独特的造园式样。法国大部分地区是辽阔的平原,因此传统的法国园林常以落叶密林为丛林背景,大量采用黄杨和紫杉作图案树坛。水景方面多为整形河道、水池。这种真正原生且带浓郁民族特色的园林很快在国内普及,并反过来影响了意大利以至整个欧洲。

现代的法国园林打破了传统的规划式或自然式的束缚,采用了一种新的动态均衡构图,具有强烈的几何性,但又不是抽象统治下的静态平衡,而是不规则的几何式体现,具有新的时代特征。

French Style Landscape
- Clear Distinction between the Primary and the Secondary & Rigorous Composition

The origin of French style landscape was affected by Renaissance in Italy. After quite a long time of imitating, it gradually shaped its own style and pattern. Because most regions in France are vast plain, so traditional French style landscape often uses dense deciduous forests as background and widely adopts box-trees and yew-trees to form patterned arrays. Water features are mainly rivers and pools. This really ecological landscape with strong national flavor sweeps across France and, in turn, has an impact on Italy and even the entire Europe.

Modern French style landscape breaks the limitation of traditional regular and natural layout, and adopts a kind of new dynamic composition, which has strong geometrical quality but not static balance under the rule of abstraction. It is actually a geometrical embodiment of irregularity with characters of the new times.

德式园林风格
——理性构图,突出线条与秩序感
德国早期的园林风格是从模仿英国园林开始的,绝大多数庭园的中轴线由林荫大道变成林间通道,其他道路自然弯曲,并形成系统。水系贯穿全园,局部扩大成为湖泊,并有大片树丛及孤植树限定无分割的广阔草地空间,形成一个自然式的风情庭园。

现代的德国园林风格,在保护和合理利用自然资源的同时,更尊重生态环境,景观设计从宏观的角度去把握规划,按各种需求、功能以理性分析、逻辑秩序进行设计。取材自然的设计元素被看成是几何的片断组合,在理性中透出了质朴的天性。这种自然与人工的冲突所营构的现代德式风格给人带来强烈的视觉印象。

German Style Landscape
- Rational Composition Emphasizing the Lines and A Sense of Order

Early German style landscape started from imitating English landscape. The axis of most gardens turns from boulevard to path in woods with other winding trails to form a network. Water system goes through the entire garden and lakes are created by enlarging waters at some certain points. The broad lawn is dotted with large groves of trees or a sole tree to form a charming natural style garden.

Contemporary German style landscape respects ecological environment while protecting and reasonably using natural resources. Landscape is planned in a macroscopic perspective, analyzed according to various demands and functions and 乐投Letou网址ed in logical order. Naturally sourced 乐投Letou网址 elements are combination of geometrical fragments, which reveal rustic nature out of rationality. Constructed by contrast between nature and mankind, such modern German style landscape gives an imposing visual effect.

英式园林风格
——自然布局,田园格调
英国的地理条件得天独厚,民族观念较稳固,有其自己的审美传统与兴趣观念,尤其对大自然的热爱与追求,形成了英国独特的园林风格。传统的英式园林以“源于自然,高于自然”的艺术法则,一方面,抛弃了一切几何形状和对称式布局,代之以弯曲的道路、自然式的树丛和草地、蜿蜒的河流,讲究借景和与园外的自然环境相融合。总体特征是自然、疏朗,色彩明快,富有浪漫情调。

现代的英式园林风格除了继续保留这种传统的造园特色之外,其趋势更倾向于观注北欧各国以及美国的动态,以求融入各国的造园精髓,并且以新的姿态呈现在各国的造园设计上。如移植到美国的英式风格景观呈现出来的特点,是就地取材,利用当地的莱姆碎石、骨料、水洗碎石、丝柏木等地域化元素,还原英式的田园风情,同时更创新地运用艺术化的手法来修建英式风情的草坪露台,以减少对地块自然资源的破坏,实现生态化的景观营造。

English Style Landscape
- Natural Layout with Idyllic Flavor

UK boasts exceptionally unique geographical conditions with firm national identification. It features its own aesthetic value, especially love for nature, shaping unique English style landscape. Following the principle of “coming from the nature but beyond the nature”, geometrical shapes and symmetrical layout are replaced by winding paths, natural groves of trees, lawns and winding rivers with emphasis on view-borrowing and combination with outer natural environment in traditional English style landscape. Generally, it is natural in a thinly scattered layout with bright colors and romantic mood.

Except for traditional characters in landscape construction, contemporary English style landscape pays more attention to development of landscape construction in Nordic countries and the United States in attempt to absorb their essences and take on a new look in countries out of UK. For example, English style landscape in the United States uses locally sourced materials, like crashed limestone, aggregate, washed gravel and cypress wood to reproduce English style idyllic flavor. Meanwhile, artistic methods are creatively used to build English style grassed terraces, minimizing environmental destruction and realizing eco-friendly landscape construction.

美式园林风格
——布局自由,大气浪漫
美式园林风格是以西欧自然式园林为主体发展而成的。由于美国独立时间较晚,民众多来自世界许多国家,其园林主要是模仿英国等欧洲国家以及日本、中国的园林再结合美国国情加以发展。所以美式园林风格在一开始就注重与大自然的融合。园林中的园路和水池形状多为自然曲线形,植物设计采用自然式布局,建筑物周围运用规则式绿篱或半自然的花径作为过渡。总体来说,美式园林风格以起伏的线条和自然生动模仿为特点。

现代的美式园林风情更注重将自然环境延伸入城市景观和生活中。通过将景观引入到建筑中与建筑相互渗透,完整地表达了美国人自由、开放的个性特征。同时,美式园林利用本国的自然特色和在营造技术及材料上的优势,不断创新,使其园林在表现手法上趋于多样化,且注重天然风景与人文建筑的有机结合。这些主要特点正逐步形成美式园林新的艺术风格。

American Style Landscape
- Free Layout & Gorgeous Romance

American style landscape basically develops on the basis of Western European natural style landscape. Due to the US’s late independence and diverse origins of citizens, American style landscape develops on imitation of European ones and gardens in China and Japan, and then combines with local conditions in the US. So, from the very beginning, American style landscape has paid attention to integration with the nature. Paths and shapes of pools are mainly curved. Planting plan adopts natural layout. Around the architecture, orderly built fences and semi-natural flower-lined trails are used as transitional elements. Generally speaking, American style landscape features wavy lines and vivid imitations.

Modern American style landscape pays more attention to its extension into urban landscape and into daily life. By blending landscape into architecture, it fully expresses Americans’ free and open personality. Taking advantage of local features of nature and edge in construction techniques and materials, Americans never stop innovating, creating more diverse approaches of expression in landscape and combination between natural landscapes with architecture. These features are shaping a new style of art of American style landscape.

热带沙漠园林风格
——注重地域性造景特色

基于热带沙漠气候而形成的沙漠园林景观,早期多见于西亚的阿拉伯沙漠、非洲的撒哈拉沙漠以及北美的加利福尼亚沙漠等沙漠地区。由于这些地区具有干旱而酷热的气候特点,景观设计常以沙漠的自然景观为素材,经过园林艺术和工程技术的处理,集中表现出热带沙漠地区的景观特性、地域文化和社会风情。

随着时间的发展,在热带或者非热带地区,景观设计常模拟热带沙漠的自然环境条件,构筑独具风情的沙漠气候景观。与其他气候带的园林形式相比,沙漠园林无论在景观营造或表现手法上,都更接近于自然,尤其注重运用地带性植物材料造景,充分表现同地带生物多样性的景观魅力。

Tropical Desert Landscape
- Focusing on Creation of Regional Landscape

The landscapes shaped by tropical desert climate are usually found in the Arabian Desert, the Sahara Desert and desert region in South California. Those places feature hot and dry weather, so the landscape architects there often draw inspiration from natural desert landscape to present characters, cultures and custom in those tropical desert regions by garden art and technology.

Nowadays, even in non-tropical regions, desert environment is imitated to build up unique style desert landscapes. Compared with other kinds of landscapes, desert landscapes, in terms of its creation and techniques, are much closer to nature. They focus on regional planning materials to fully express local charming species diversity.

现代自然园林风格
——人与自然和谐共处
现代自然园林是从场地条件和生态平衡原则出发,以自然要素为创作素材,以自然文化为源泉,着重反映出人与自然的和谐关系。自然是风景园林艺术的基础,正如芬兰著名建筑师伊利尔•沙里宁(Eliel Saarinen)所说:“对自然的‘形式世界’研究得越多,就越觉得自然形式语言具有丰富的创造性、细腻感和流变性……”

随着世界各国对自然景观的认识不断深入,无论是住宅景观还是城市绿地,都充分利用自然资源进行景观整治,以创造出更加丰富动人的园林景观。东方国家常以山石、水体、植被等自然材料为元素,以构成山峦、峡谷、洞穴、湖泊、溪流、山林等自然空间作为造园要素,结合光影、风雨、山岚、晨雾等自然现象,营造令人心旷神怡的自然景观。

Natural Modern Style Landscape
- Harmonious Existence between Mankind and Nature

Based on the site conditions and balance of ecosystem, natural modern style landscape has natural elements as materials for creation and natural world as its source, and focus on the harmony between mankind and nature. As the famous Finn architect Eliel Saarinen said, the deeper research on the “world of form” in the natural world you have done, the more creative, delicate and rheological you will feel the formative language in the nature is.

As the world knows more about natural landscape, both residential landscape and urban green land make a full use of natural resources to create more attractive ones. In the Oriental countries, natural materials such as stone, water, planting are used to model on such forms in natural world as mountains, valleys, caves, lakes, streams and woods. Combined with natural phenomena – light, shadow, wind, rain and mist, they are 乐投Letou网址ed as refreshing natural scenery.

现代节能园林风格
——环保生态,再现历史文脉
现代节能作为生态设计的一个重要环节和表现,在现代景观设计中越来越得到重视。在这里,雨水的导流、收集和再利用的过程,通过城市雨水生态设计可以成为城市的一道独特景观;设计挖地三尺,把脚下土层和基岩变化作为景观设计的对象,以唤起大城市居民对摩天大楼与水泥铺装下的自然意识。在自然景观中的水和火不再被当做灾害,而是一种维持景观和生物多样性所必需的生态过程。

设计中尽可能使用再生原料制成的材料,尽可能将场地上的材料循环使用,最大限度地发挥材料的潜力,减少生产、加工、运输材料而消耗的能源,减少施工中的废弃物,并且保留当地的文化特点。

Eco-friendly Modern Style Landscape
- Eco-friendly and Sustainable Landscape to Reproduce Historical Context

As an important part in eco-乐投Letou网址, eco-friendly and sustainable strategy receives more and more attention. Water diversion, collection and recycling can be turned into a unique landscape through urban water management. Changes between layers of soil and bedrock underground are exposed as part of landscape to foster awareness of nature beneath skyscrapers and concrete paving among people living in metropolis. Water and fire are no longer destructive factors but necessary ones to keep the diversity of landscape and species.

Reclaimed materials and on-site materials are used as much as possible to reduce energy consumption during the process of production, processing and transport of materials, decrease waste of construction, and keep local cultural characters.

现代创意园林风格
——新颖奇特,营构艺术氛围
现代创意景观从一开始就从现代艺术中汲取了丰富的形式语言。对于寻找能够表达当前的科学、技术和人类意识活动的形式语汇的设计师来说,艺术无疑提供了最直接最丰富的源泉。从早期的立体主义、构成主义到后来的极简艺术、波普艺术,每一种艺术思潮和艺术形式都为景观创意提供了最新颖奇特的设计语汇。

在现代园林设计中,最引人注目并且容易理解的就是以现代创意面貌出现的设计要素。现代设计师可以较自由地运用光影、色彩、声音、质感等形式要素与地形、水体、植物、建筑与构筑物等形体要素创造园林与环境。如上海800秀创意园提出了一些颇有新意的设想,用点状地形加强围合感,线状地形创造连绵的空间,为都市人提供了一个释放压力的好去处。

Creative Modern Style Landscape
- Novelty to Create Artistic Atmosphere

At the onset, creative modern style takes in rich formative language from modern art. For landscape architects who are seeking for a language to express contemporary science, technology and human minds, art is undoubtedly the richest and the most direct source. From early cubism, constructivism to the latter minimalist art and pop art, each one provides landscape creativity with the most innovative and unusual 乐投Letou网址 vocabulary.

In modern landscape 乐投Letou网址, the most eye-catching and easiest to understand is 乐投Letou网址 element appears in modern creative look. Landscape architects are free to use light-shadow effect, color, sound, textures to combine with landform, water body, plants, architecture and structure to create gardens and environment. Take 800 Show in Shanghai for example, some innovated ideas were brought up: dot-shaped spaces to strengthen a sense of enclosure, linear spaces to create continuous one as a good choice for urban citizens to release pressure.



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